Ventris C. Gibson Confirmed as Director of the United States Mint

Ventris Gibson

Ventris Gibson

WASHINGTON – On Friday, Ventris C. Gibson took the oath of office as Director of the United States Mint. President Biden nominated Ms. Gibson on December 13, 2021. On May 4, the Senate Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs advanced her nomination. The full Senate approved the nomination by voice vote on June 15.

Director Gibson becomes the 40th Director of the Mint. She is the first African-American to serve as Director, and the seventh woman to serve in this position.

“I am honored and humbled to be confirmed as Director of the Mint,” said Gibson. “Since joining the Mint last October, I have been tremendously impressed by the dedication and professionalism of its workforce, and the outstanding quality of the circulation coins, bullion coins, and numismatic products made by the Mint.”

Director Gibson is a U.S. Navy veteran who joined the Mint from the District of Columbia government, where she served as the Director of Human Resources. In this role, Ms. Gibson provided executive oversight and execution of human capital programs and services for nearly 37,000 employees. Prior to that, she served as Associate Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Resources in the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. She was responsible for the development, articulation, and delivery of Department-wide human resources policies, plans, and programs.

Director Gibson’s career with the Federal Government includes leadership roles in the Federal Aviation Administration, where she was Assistant Administrator for Human Resources, and the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) as Deputy Assistant Secretary for Human Resource Management and its first Deputy Assistant Secretary for Resolution Management. She was the VA’s highest-ranking woman veteran and directed human resources management and civil rights programs affecting 230,000 employees.

During a career spanning more than 40 years in human resources executive and professional positions, Director Gibson earned numerous awards and commendations. She received an Exceptional Service and a Meritorious Service Award from the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, an Exceptional Service Award from the Secretary of Transportation, FAA Manager Association’s Leadership Award, National Hispanic Coalition’s President’s Award, and the Northern New Jersey Metropolitan Area’s prestigious “Woman of the Year” award.

A graduate of the Federal Executive Institute, Executive Technique, and Aspen Institute, Director Gibson attended the University of Maryland, University College. She has three children and four grandchildren.

ANA Honors Distinguished Numismatists with Awards

Every year, the American Numismatic Association (ANA) recognizes members who go above and beyond with their service and dedication to numismatics. The following awards, which are presented at the World’s Fair of Money®, will be awarded during the Member & Awards Celebration, Thursday, Aug. 18 at 3 p.m. in room 25/26 of the Donald E. Stephens Convention Center in Rosemont, Illinois.

The Adna G. Wilde Jr. Memorial Award for Exemplary Service recognizes collectors and hobbyists who are active at the regional and/or national level and work to advance numismatic knowledge among the general public. Recipients promote and strengthen the hobby by serving as club officers, newsletter editors, coin show volunteers, and the like. This year, three individuals will be recognized: Patrick McBride, David Schenkman, and Jeffrey Swindling.

Patrick McBride joined his first coin clubs in the mid ’80s, all in western Pennsylvania, and has consistently volunteered for those organizations since then. He holds several offices for the Pennsylvania Association of Numismatists and was the host club chair for the ANA’s 2019 National Money Show®. He has contributed extensively to the ANA’s educational efforts, including loaning several of his rare issues of The Numismatist when the ANA digitized the entire run of the magazine in 2015. Additionally, he lobbied for both versions of the bills proposing the creation of 2021 Peace and Morgan dollar centennial commemoratives. His efforts contributed to the successful passage of the legislation.

The Numismatist “Tokens &anp Medals” columnist David Schenkman has cheerfully and selflessly contributed countless hours to both the ANA and any fellow hobbyist who has sought his expertise. He has taught ANA Summer Seminar classes and has given talks for local, regional, and national numismatic organizations. He regularly shares his knowledge through the many columns, books, and articles he has written over the past five decades. A former president of the Token and Medal Society (TAMS), he was editor of the TAMS Journal from 1982-2010 and currently serves on the board of directors. The recipient of dozens of literary and achievement awards – including numerous ANA Heath Literary Awards – he was inducted into the ANA Hall of Fame in 2015.

Jeffrey Swindling has recruited over 500 members to the ANA in addition to donating his time as a regular ANA convention volunteer and district representative. He is committed to sharing the hobby with the next generation and has served as a Coin Collecting Merit Badge counselor since 2002, helping thousands of scouts earn their badges. During his time as chair of the ANA’s YN and Scout Committee, he instituted several key initiatives, including the “Coins for A’s” and the ANA College Scholarship programs. Swindling has received several ANA Member Booster Awards and continuously shares his extensive knowledge with collectors and non-collectors alike.

The ANA’s Medal of Merit honors individuals at the regional and/or national level who have dedicated numerous years of service to the ANA and hobby. This year’s recipients are passionate volunteers who spread the joy of numismatics everywhere they go.

Sandra “Sandy” Hill worked as an employee in the ANA’s membership department for 21 years until she retired. She now serves as a national volunteer and recruits throngs of new members at ANA conventions every year. She became a member of the Century Club in 2016 and has received the John & Nancy Wilson Member Booster Award twice (2019 and 2020). Her cheerful, charismatic persona is magnetic and is glad to help anyone with any task. She has even jumped in as a substitute Summer Seminar instructor when the scheduled teacher experienced travel delays.

Since 2011 she’s served as a district representative for Washington. She founded the Kalama Coin Club in Washington in 2008 and currently serves as its president. She also plans to introduce an incentive program for youngsters using world coins as educational tools.

Hill’s work ethic demonstrates that one doesn’t need to be a scholar to be an instrumental member of the numismatic community. She was recognized with an ANA Presidential Award in 2011 and Glenn Smedley Memorial Award in 2013.

During his 45 years of service, Bob Hurst has volunteered and exhibited at many coin conventions. He has also judged displays and given educational talks at state shows hosted by the Florida United Numismatists (FUN), Central States Numismatic Society, Georgia Numismatic Association, and others. He was the bourse chair for the Blue Ridge Numismatic Association for six years. A respected leader, he currently serves as president of both FUN and the Tennessee State Numismatic Society, where he’s been instrumental in stabilizing the latter organization’s finances.

Hurst developed an interest in ancient coins in 1973 while he was serving overseas in the U.S. Air Force, and he founded a club for like-minded collectors in San Vito dei Normanni, Italy. He participated in several archaeological digs in the country, and he led a dig under the auspices of the National Museum in Napes that unearthed an assortment of Roman coins. As a dealer and enthusiastic student of ancient and world issues, he’s become an authority on these pieces, particularly crown-size coins and talers, and he’s given numerous educational talks on the topic. Hurst has been recognized with several hobby accolades, including two ANA Presidential Awards (2007 and 2021), the Numismatic Ambassador Award (2008), and the ANA Glenn Smedley Memorial Award (2009).

Gary Lewis served in the U.S. Air Force, which took him on a journey from Illinois to Thailand to Colorado to Florida, and his travels didn’t stop there. He’s attended 54 ANA conventions since his first in 1963 and has visited all 50 states, attending coin shows or club meetings in about half of them. Lewis became an ANA district representative for Colorado over 50 years ago, and since then, has served in many capacities for the Association, including chief exhibit judge, National Coin Week chair, regional representative, governor, vice president, and by 2003, he was elected president. He has served on more ANA committees than anyone else in Association history, and today, he mentors students enrolled in the ANA’s Numismatic Diploma Program. A creative problem-solver, Lewis offers forward-thinking ideas. Years before technology evolved to its current state, he was looking ahead to the digital world he knew was imminent.

Lewis has served as an officer in nine local and regional clubs, including six presidencies in a 47-year time span. While he was president of the Colorado Springs Coin Club from 1972-74, he started the annual coin show that is now integrated with Summer Seminar. His reach extends beyond the collecting community – he was a member of the U.S. Assay Commission in 1974 and chaired the Florida State Quarter Selection Committee from 2001-2003. Lewis has written articles for several numismatic publications on a variety of topics that have interested him in his 66 years of collecting. He was named the ANA’s Outstanding Adult Advisor in 1979 and received the Glenn Smedley Memorial Award in 2005.

The ANA has named John Brush the 2022 Harry J. Forman Dealer of the Year. Presented annually, the award honors a professional numismatist who shows uncommon dedication to strengthening the hobby and the ANA; exhibits high ethical standards and integrity; and treats all members of the numismatic community and the general public fairly and consistently.

The Virginia Beach, Virginia, resident is well-known for his role as president of David Lawrence Rare Coins (DLRC), a position he’s held since late 2015. Brush joined the company as a staff numismatist in 2006 after working as a wholesale trader at Spectrum Numismatics (now Stack’s Bowers Galleries). As president, Brush oversees the direction of DLRC and serves as the chief buyer, traveling to all major shows on an annual basis. He is respected for his inviolable ethical standards and oversees what many consider the leading website in the industry. Brush also assists with curating the D.L. Hansen Collection for his business partner Dell Loy Hansen, a Utah real estate and business mogul.

Brush serves as chairman of the National Coin and Bullion Association and is the treasurer for the Professional Numismatists Guild. The former Summer Seminar attendee and later instructor has been a hobbyist since age five. He joined the ANA in 1987 at the urging of his father, and he has inspired countless others to do the same.

Treasury Applauds Appointment of Chief Lynn Malerba as Treasurer of the United States

Chief Lynn Malerba will become the first Native American to serve as Treasurer of the United States and will lead the newly established Office of Tribal and Native Affairs.

Marilynn “Lynn” Malerba, D.N.P., M.P.A., the newly appointed Treasurer of the United States (image courtesy of NIH)

WASHINGTON – Today, ahead of Secretary of the Treasury Janet L. Yellen’s visit to the Rosebud Indian Reservation in South Dakota, President Joe Biden announced the appointment of Lynn Malerba, Lifetime Chief of the Mohegan Tribe, to serve as Treasurer of the United States. Chief Malerba is the first Native American to serve as the nation’s Treasurer. To underscore the Department’s commitment to Tribal nations, Treasury also announced the establishment of a new Office of Tribal and Native Affairs. The new office will be led by the new Treasurer and coordinate Tribal relations across the Department.

Chief Malerba became the 18th Chief of the Mohegan Tribe in 2010 and is the first woman to serve in this position in the Tribe’s modern history. She previously served as a member of the Treasury Tribal Advisory Committee. Chief Malerba’s appointment as Treasurer of the United States will also mean that for the first time in U.S. history, a Native woman’s signature will soon be seen on the nation’s currency.

“I am deeply honored that Chief Malerba will serve as the nation’s Treasurer and spearhead the department’s new Office of Tribal and Native Affairs. This is an historic appointment,” said Secretary Yellen. “Her leadership and experience will deepen our commitment to help expand economic opportunities for all Tribal communities.”

“I am honored and humbled by Secretary Yellen and the Biden Administration’s commitment to ensuring that all voices are heard by Treasury as we work together to create an equitable and just society,” said Chief Lynn Malerba. “It is especially important that our Native voices are respected. This appointment underscores this Administration’s commitment to doing just that. I am excited to serve our communities as Treasurer and for the work ahead.”

As Treasurer, Chief Malerba will also oversee the newly established Office of Tribal and Native Affairs that will house staff directly dedicated to communication with Tribal nations and the hub for Tribal policy. Treasury previously created a Tribal team in 2021 as part of its efforts to develop the department’s growing relationship with Tribal nations and to help administer $30 billion in programs directed towards Tribes through the American Rescue Plan. The new Office of Tribal and Native Affairs will work across Treasury’s portfolio on issues related to Tribal nations, and Treasury intends to work with Congress to ensure this office has the resources it needs to carry out its mission.

In addition to leading the Office of Tribal and Native Affairs, the Treasurer of the United States directly oversees the U.S. Mint, the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, Fort Knox, and is a key liaison with the Federal Reserve. Chief Malerba will also serve as a senior advisor to the Secretary in the areas of community development and public engagement.

Secretary Yellen’s visit to Rosebud Indian Reservation marks the first time in history that a Treasury Secretary has visited a Tribal nation. During her visit, the Secretary will highlight how American Rescue Plan funds are supporting the Tribe’s recovery from the pandemic and expanding economic opportunity for its citizens. She will meet with residents who received Emergency Rental Assistance funds that helped them remain in their homes, speak with Tribal leaders about their plans to use a portion of their State and Local Fiscal Recovery Funds to increase affordable housing supply, and highlight the investments that the Tribe is making to boost educational and economic opportunities for all households by expanding access to high-speed affordable internet.


Chief Mutáwi Mutáhash (Many Hearts) Marilynn “Lynn” Malerba became the 18th Chief of the Mohegan Tribe on August 15, 2010 and is the first female Chief in the Tribe’s modern history. The position is a lifetime appointment made by the Tribe’s Council of Elders. Prior to becoming Chief, she served as Chairwoman of the Tribal Council, and served in Tribal Government as Executive Director of Health and Human Services. Preceding her work for the Mohegan Tribe, Malerba had a career as a registered nurse, ultimately as the Director of Cardiology and Pulmonary Services at Lawrence + Memorial Hospital. She earned a Doctor of Nursing Practice at Yale University and was named a Jonas Scholar. She was awarded an honorary doctoral degree in science from Eastern Connecticut State University and an honorary doctoral degree in humane letters from the University of St. Joseph in West Hartford, Connecticut. Malerba earned a master’s degree in public administration from the University of Connecticut and a Bachelor of Science in Nursing from the College of St. Joseph.

Read more about Chief Malerba via her NIH biography.

Birmingham 2022 Commonwealth Games UK 50P Coin

With a storied history that dates back to 1930, the Commonwealth Games is one of the biggest sporting events in the world. Sandwiched neatly in between summer Olympic years, the quadrennial event has long established itself as a true hub of athletic excellence, covering a wide array of action-packed sports and featuring the very best athletes from across the Commonwealth.

This year, the Commonwealth Games returns to England for only the third time in its history and will emanate from the city of Birmingham for the very first time. The motto for Birmingham 2022 is ‘Games for Everyone’, with a conscious focus on inclusivity – a stance that is backed by the largest female and para-sport programme in the history of the Commonwealth Games.

The Royal Mint is proud to celebrate the Commonwealth Games and its incredible 92-year legacy with a UK 50p coin dedicated to Birmingham 2022. Featuring a bespoke reverse design by The Royal Mint’s own Natasha Preece, this coin captures the essence of the Commonwealth Games through the striking geometric patterns associated with Birmingham 2022.


  • Celebrating the first Commonwealth Games held in England for 20 years
  • Features a design that cleverly incorporates the unmistakable geometric patterns of Birmingham Library
  • Year-dated 2022 commemorating the historic 22nd Commonwealth Games
  • The perfect memento to celebrate the very first Games held in Birmingham
  • Collaboratively developed with Birmingham 2022 and each home nation’s respective team.

New Whitman Book Explores the 100 Greatest Canadian Coins and Tokens

A new Whitman Publishing book, 100 Greatest Canadian Coins and Tokens, by Dr. Harvey B. Richer, will debut in July 2022 at the annual convention of the Royal Canadian Numismatic Association, in Ottawa. The 160-page hardcover coffee-table volume will be available from bookstores and hobby shops and online (including at Here, Whitman publisher Dennis Tucker discusses how the book came to be, and its context within Whitman’s focus on Canadian numismatics.

Collectors in Ottawa, Ontario, will be among the first to see Dr. Harvey Richer’s new book, 100 Greatest Canadian Coins and Tokens as it takes its place among nearly 75 years of related Whitman Publishing books and hobby supplies.

The publishing company, while headquartered in Racine, Wisconsin, began an extensive lineup of Canadian coin folders in 1950. Meanwhile, up in Toronto, James E. Charlton was self-publishing his Catalogue of Canadian Coins, Tokens & Fractional Currency. In 1959 R.S. Yeoman, father of Whitman’s popular Guide Book of United States Coins (the “Red Book”), approached Charlton to publish his book and distribute it in the United States. Yeoman tripled the page count and expanded the content, and sales reached 100,000 copies per year in the 1960s. In the same era Whitman also published the Standard Grading Guide to Canadian Decimal Coins, distributed a “Canadian Coin Hobby Starter Kit,” and offered hobbyists a checklist and record book to keep track of their collections.

In the 1970s Robert C. Willey and James A. Haxby pioneered the modern study of Canadian coins in a new Whitman book, Coins of Canada. Willey (1927—1993), of Saskatchewan, was well established as a numismatic researcher and writer. Haxby was known for his authoritative papers on die-making and his scholarship in Canada’s decimal coinage. Their book was groundbreaking. Whitman published it into the early 1980s.

In 2003 Q. David Bowers joined Whitman as the company’s numismatic director, and in 2004 I took the role of publisher. Clifford Mishler, former president of Krause Publications (and a Whitman author himself), introduced me to James Haxby in 2007. From this renewed partnership came a modern era of Whitman activity in Canadian coinage. We planned a brand-new, 464-page Guide Book of Canadian Coins and Tokens—a full-color illustrated history, price guide, and reference book that was published in 2012. Whitman also updated its Canadian coin folders, for large cents through modern dollars and Toonies.

In 2017 Boulder Publications released Harvey B. Richer’s excellent Gold Coins of Newfoundland, 1865—1888, subtitled How Newfoundland Came to Possess a Spectacular Mintage of Gold Coins. Part of what made Gold Coins of Newfoundland such a remarkable book was Dr. Richer’s talent as a writer and a teacher, as well as his approach to numismatics. He began his study with the formation of the solar system, moved into continental drift and a theory of geographical connection between Britain and Canada, and then a summary of 9,000 years of Newfoundland history! With this fascinating background Richer led up to the minting of Newfoundland’s gold coins.

“One aspect I was particularly interested in,” he later told me, “was the effect such a magnificent issue of coinage had on the Newfoundland population 150 years ago. Recall that this was a very poor society largely driven by fishing and seal hunting. What was the impact of the coinage on commerce, on how the Newfoundlanders viewed themselves?”

I met Dr. Richer in 2017 at the American Numismatic Association show in Denver, and we discussed the potential of a new volume in Whitman’s library of “100 Greatest” books. We immersed ourselves in the best way to present a subject as far-reaching as “the best of Canadian coins.” Dr. Richer’s development of the manuscript included consultation with the Canadian Numismatic Research Society. In 2021 we began its final editorial work.

Harvey Richer brought the same intellectual curiosity to 100 Greatest Canadian Coins and Tokens that he gave to Gold Coins of Newfoundland—asking questions, laying the groundwork, and always looking for the human element. His writing is embellished with personal asides (the connections that make numismatics an art as well as a science). And he’s not afraid to push boundaries in his exploration of what defines a “coin” or “token.” Among the 100 Greatest you’ll find playing cards, wampum belts, and encased postage. While clearly not coins, are these forms of token money? Such questions always enliven the conversations around Whitman’s “100 Greatest” books—not to mention how to define “greatness,” and what constitutes the greatest of the great

Accompanying his narrative are outstanding pictures of the coins and tokens themselves. Photographs shared by Heritage Auctions make up the majority of the coin images—not surprising, given Heritage’s status as the largest collectibles auctioneer and third-largest auction house in the world. Many of the Canadian rarities find their homes through the Dallas-based firm’s sales. PCGS and Stack’s Bowers Galleries also contributed photographs, as did numerous museums, archives, and libraries. The result is a gorgeous numismatic panorama, a virtual coin cabinet that can be opened and enjoyed any time.

As a professor of astronomy, Harvey Richer has used the Hubble Space Telescope and major terrestrial telescopes to gaze into the heavens. The numismatic community is fortunate to have his attention turned to the richly interesting field of Canadian coins and tokens. And at Whitman Publishing we’re proud to add him to our roster of Yeoman, Charlton, Willey, and Haxby in the exploration of Canadian numismatics.

100 Greatest Canadian Coins and Tokens
By Harvey B. Richer; forewords by Kenneth Bressett and Emily S. Damstra.
ISBN 794849830. Hardcover, 10 x 12 inches, 160 pages, full color.
Retail $34.95 U.S.

Fabled sunken treasure ship’s bell donated to US Naval Academy

Gift from California business executive Dwight Manley honors ship’s brave Captain, Commander William Lewis Herndon

SS Central America Bell

The 268-pound ship’s bell from the legendary “Ship of Gold,” the SS Central America that sank in 1857, has been donated by Dwight Manley of Brea, California to the United States Naval Academy. (Photo courtesy of California Gold Marketing Group.)

(Annapolis, Maryland) May 23, 2022 – The United States Naval Academy in Annapolis, Maryland has received an important piece of American and naval history, the bell from the SS Central America, the legendary “Ship of Gold” that was led by Commander William Lewis Herndon (1813-1857). The famous ship sank in 1857 while carrying 578 passengers and crewmembers and a king’s ransom of California Gold Rush treasures.

Rare coin expert, real estate developer, philanthropist, and former sports agent Dwight Manley of Brea, California donated the Central America’s 268-pound bronze bell to the Academy where there has been an important tribute monument to Commander Herndon for the past 162 years. The historic bell was formally dedicated on May 23, just prior to the 2022 annual monument climb by the Academy’s freshmen (“plebes”).

A distinguished career naval officer, Herndon sacrificed his life in a brave effort to save the Central America. “He saved the lives of 152 passengers before he made the decision to go down with the ship,” according to the Naval Academy.

The Central America sank in the Atlantic Ocean 150 miles off the North Carolina coast during a hurricane on September 12, 1857. In 1860, a 21-foot-tall granite obelisk was dedicated in Herndon’s honor near the center of the Naval Academy campus.

Prior to his important assignment as Master of the United States Mail Steamship Central America in 1855, Herndon served with distinction during the Mexican-American War of 1846-1848 and led a successful South America expedition in 1851 that resulted in his acclaimed 1854 report, Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon.

“Commander Herndon is a revered and honored name in the U.S. Navy. His legacy has been part of the annual rite of passage at the Academy with his monument scaled by the current year’s plebes. It is my extreme privilege to be able to unite the bell with the monument so all in attendance each year can experience the sounds Commander Herndon heard as he went down with the ship after 40 hours of valiant effort to save every woman and child aboard,” said Manley who spoke at the bell’s May 23 dedication ceremony.

Last August, Manley met at Annapolis with Naval Academy Superintendent, Vice Admiral Sean S. Buck, to offer the gift of the recovered, historic bell, and the Department of the Navy accepted the offer.

Assistant Secretary of the Navy Meredith Berger approved the gift “to support and educate the Brigade of Midshipmen,” and in a letter to Manley she expressed the Department of the Navy’s “sincere appreciation.”

The bell was discovered 34 years ago, 131 years after the ship sank. It is larger than most ships’ bells of the era, measuring nearly two feet tall and a little over two feet wide at its lower flange edge.

SSCA bell on ocean floor

Using a remote-controlled submarine in 1988, the 268-pound bell from the fabled “Ship of Gold,” the SS Central America that sank in 1857, was discovered 7,200 feet under the surface of the Atlantic Ocean. (Photo courtesy of California Gold Marketing Group.)

“The site of what we thought might be the SS Central America was discovered in 1988 about 7,200 feet below the ocean’s surface. Using a robot submarine, we located a bell and could see part of the embossed lettering on it, MORGAN IRON WORKS NEW YORK 1853. That provided additional evidence that the shipwreck site was indeed the Central America,” explained Bob Evans, the chief scientist and historian on the recovery missions who also attended the bell’s dedication ceremony at the U.S. Naval Academy. “The bell provided spectacular and undeniable confirmation we located the ship.”

The Central America was a 280-foot long, three-masted side-wheel steamship carrying what Life magazine later called “The Greatest Treasure Ever Found,” tons of California Gold Rush-era gold coins and assayers’ ingots. The loss of the valuable cargo was a major factor in the economically devastating financial panic of 1857 in the United States.

1943/1942-S Lincoln Cent Discovered

Previously Known 1943-S Doubled Die Obverse Cent Discovered to Actually Be a 1943/1942-S Overdate

By Tom DeLorey
ANA LM-1696

Full obverse of the 1943/42-S cent. Photo courtesy Numismatic Guaranty Company and David Lange. Used with permission.

About 45 years ago, collector Del Romines came into my office at Coin World’s Collectors Clearinghouse with two well-worn 1943-P nickels that he thought were 1943/2-P overdates. I thought that he might be right, so I took pictures of his coins, published them in Coin World, and asked if anybody had a higher grade specimen that could verify the overdate. One week later a member of my local coin club, Bern Nagengast, cherrypicked a sharp BU specimen at a coin show, and the 1943/42-P Jefferson nickel was confirmed. At the time people were amazed that it had taken almost 35 years for the overdate to be noticed.

About a month ago longtime collector James Elliott contacted me via the Internet and said that another collector in the die variety collecting field, Pete Apple, had recommended that he contact me about a 1943-S cent that he had with a known Doubled Die Obverse that he thought was also a 1943/2-S overdate. As with Del Romines and his 1943/42-P nickels, I think he is right, and my fellow die variety specialists Bill Fivaz, John Wexler and James Wiles agree with me, as does noted Lincoln cent specialist and author David Lange. In our unanimous opinion, the 1943/1942-S cent is a true overdate!

Though it is a known die variety, and has been for many years, it has only ever been recognized for its die doubling. It is currently listed as such in the “Cherrypickers’ Guide” by Bill Fivaz and the late J.T. Stanton as variety FS-101 (019.5) among the 1943-S cents. [The (019.5) number is an obsolete reference number from the earlier editions of the CPG, which is noted because it might be found on older TPG slabs.]

The misalignment of the designs between the 1942-dated hub and the 1943-dated hub pivots around a spot on the left obverse rim. Because of this swing the coin shows only trivial doubling on the word LIBERTY close to the pivot point, but some fairly strong doubling almost due North and South at the base of the 1. There is similar doubling under the top curve of the 9 and along the right side the leg of the 9. There is extra metal below the sharp left angle of the 4 that corresponds in scale to the doubling on the 1 and the 9. Fairly rare early die state coins will also show similar doubling on the base of the 4, but this feature apparently was either worn off or polished off of the die early in its die life.

Elliott gets the credit for first suggesting that the doubled die was actually an overdated die, ever since he asked the question back in July of 2020 in a private online forum, “Lincoln Cent Errors and Varieties Only,” on Facebook. As he pointed out, “the extra metal to the upper right side of the 3 matches a 2.” He provided an overlay to show how an underlying 2 could account for that extra metal. As my colleagues and I have confirmed, this extra metal does not line up with any part of the 3 if the entire 1943 date is doubled in a North-South direction, the same way that the 1 and the 9 and the 4 are doubled.

As seen in the attached overlay of a 1943 date and a 1942 date created by die variety specialist Dr. James Wiles, owner of the Variety Vista website, the high arched curve of the upper right part of a 2 falls into the field to the right of the top of the 3. Study the pictures of the overdate, and see that the blob of raised metal to the right of the top of the 3 cannot align with any part of a 3 that is doubled only North and South.

There is extra metal inside the top of the 3 that corresponds with the upper left curve of the 2, though its similarity to the upper left curve of the 3 must be acknowledged. However, it does seem to match the angle of the upper left curve of the 2 more than that of the 3. There is extra metal below the center “tine” of the 3 that corresponds with the lower left curve of the 2, above the base of the 2 (which is not present).

If you are wondering why there is nothing else inside the bottom of the 3, look at the images of normal 1942 and 1943 dates and see that the 2 is rather short, the same height as the 4, while the 3 is much taller, the same height as the 9. Only a 3 could be down there if the 3 were doubled, and there is nothing.

Why is the base of the 2 missing and the upper right curve of the 2 weak? This is a function of the hubbing process. Back then blank dies were polished down to a very shallow cone on the end to help the positive steel hub transform the negative steel die more effectively. As the hub came into contact with the die blank the center of the design would form first, and then spread outwards as the hub sank deeper and deeper into the die.

Eventually the die became work hardened from all this pressure, and so the hub stopped entering the conical die blank before the design impression had reached out all the way to the rim of the die. The die now needed to be annealed, or heated in an oven to a certain temperature and allowed to cool slowly overnight. This softened the die steel. On the next working day it was put back under a design hub for another impression. Sometimes this process had to be repeated more than once, depending upon the diameter and relief of the design, the skill of the annealer, the skill of the hubber, etc., etc.

If the second (or third) hub impression happened to be from a different hub with a different date, the result should be an overdate “IF” the earlier date was sufficiently formed during the previous impression(s). Dual date hubbing could have happened near the end of any calendar year when the Engraving Department was still producing dies for current usage from the current year’s hub while simultaneously producing dies from the next year’s hub in order to have some ready to be used on January 2nd.

The same thing happened with the 1909/8 gold double eagle, the 1918/7-D nickel, the 1918/7-S quarter, the 1942/41-P&D dimes, and the 1943/42-P nickel. It has been speculated that it is no coincidence that six of the seven modern hubbed overdates occurred during wartime, when the Mint would be less inclined to scrap out a blundered but perfectly usable die. It is also possible that one or more of the skilled hubbers was off serving his country in the military.

On this particular die the outer parts of the design, such as IN GOD WE TRUST, were not formed by the first impression, and so they could not be doubled by the second impression of the hub. Over in the word LIBERTY, the BERTY shows some very trivial die doubling (being close to the pivot point), while the LI show no doubling at all because they did not exist before the second hubbing. The upper right curve of the 2 was incompletely formed by the first hubbing, while the flat base of the 2 was not formed because it lies closer to the rim.

Closeup of LIBERTY on the 1943/1942-S Lincoln cent, showing very minimal die doubling on the BERTY because this area was so close to the pivot point. Photo courtesy Numismatic Guaranty Company’s Variety Plus archive. Used with permission.

Something similar can be seen on the 1943/42-P nickel, on which the top of the date is closest to the rim. It shows a strong base of the 2 from the original hubbing, but not the center or top of the 2. The result was a 3 over a partial 2. By contrast, if only the bases of LIBERTY and IN GOD WE TRUST were formed by the 1942 hub impression, the letters were simply finished normally by the subsequent 1943 impression.

Several specimens of the 1943/1942-S cent have been examined. Only the earliest die states show doubling at the bottom of the upright of the 4. Middle to later die states show some strong vertical die polish lines, as might have been caused by the use of an emery stick to clean the die, in the field above the date.

The die variety will continue to be listed in the “Cherrypickers Guide” as FS-101, though a new description of it will be forthcoming. The description in the Numismatic Guaranty Company’s Variety Plus archives will also be amended.

I would like to thank James Elliott for having the wisdom to look at “what everybody knows is so” and asking questions. I would also like to thank Bill Fivaz, David Lange, John Wexler and Dr. James Wiles for their invaluable contributions in adding yet another overdate to the canon of American die varieties. To those of you who were amazed when I published the 1943/42-P nickel some 35 years after it was first struck, all I can say 79 years after the 1943/1942-S was first struck is: “KEEP LOOKING!!!”

ANA Library Receives Important Donation From Dwight N. Manley

Walter Breen’s Documents Can Help Future Researchers

Prominent collector and benefactor Dwight N. Manley of Brea, California has donated to the American Numismatic Association ( more than 60 books, auction catalogs, and photographs he recently acquired at auction from the Sydney F. Martin (1945-2021) Numismatic Library Collection. All the items were previously owned or annotated by noted numismatic researcher and author Walter Breen (1928-1993) and many have his handwritten notes.

Among the highlights of the donation are two annotated drafts of Breen’s massive 1987 masterpiece, Walter Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins, with thousands of handwritten notes made as he typically did in different color inks. The combined drafts total over 3,000 pages and were described by auction house Kolbe & Fanning Numismatic Booksellers as “an exceptionally important part of the Breen archives.”

Another annotated book is Breen’s personal copy of the 1981 reference guide he co-authored with former ANA President Anthony Swiatek, The Encyclopedia of United States Silver & Gold Commemorative Coins, 1982-1954.

There are 29 auction catalogs each with Breen’s handwritten notes. The sales dates range from a Stack’s auction in 1951 to the Rarcoa offering of the Kaufman Collection in 1978.

The donation also includes several letters Breen wrote and 19 photographic plates depicting colonial-era state and other pre-federal coins with his handwritten notes on rarity. Among the plates are black and white prints depicting obverses and reverses of 1785 Connecticut coppers. These photos were produced by Al Hoch in the late 1960s and are the coins extensively cited in Breen’s famous 1975 Early American Coppers organization sale catalog of Connecticut coppers.

“Walter Breen had a troubled personal life, but he was one of the top numismatic researchers of his era. These important documents can help current and future researchers provide useful information for our hobby,” said Manley.

In 2003, the ANA Library at ANA headquarters in Colorado Springs, Colorado was named in honor of Manley when he gratefully donated $250,000 to the Association. That donation was a “thank you” for the $400 scholarship he received as a teenager in 1980 to attend an ANA Summer Seminar session.

In 2007, Manley donated an original edition of the world’s first illustrated numismatic book, Illustrium Imagines, published in 1517.

The American Numismatic Association is a congressionally chartered, nonprofit educational organization dedicated to encouraging the study and collection of coins and related items. The ANA helps its members and the public discover and explore the world of money through its vast array of educational and outreach programs, including the Money Museum, located at 818 N. Cascade Avenue, Colorado Springs, Colo. For more information, call (719) 632-2646 or visit

Wayde Milas Named PNG President

(Temecula, California) May 10, 2022 – Second generation numismatist Wayde Milas, President of Rare Coin Company of America (RARCOA) in Willowbrook, Illinois, has been selected as the new President of the Professional Numismatists Guild ( for the 2022-2024 term.

Milas’ father, Ed Milas, served as PNG President from 1983 to 1985.

“Our respected, long-time PNG Executive Director, Robert Bruggeman, will be retiring next year, so my primary first goal as PNG President is to reach out to our members about the best candidates to succeed him,” said Milas who joined PNG in 2005.

“My other goals and projects as PNG President will be looking at ways to revamp and revitalize the experience of in-person shows for dealers and collectors as well as the future of PNG Days and the dealer-to-dealer PNG Trading Rooms. Another goal is to increase the number of younger dealers in the PNG ranks and how we can increase the cost/benefit ratio for them as well as all PNG members,” Milas continued.

All officers of the PNG Board of Directors also serve pro bono as officers of the non-profit Anti-Counterfeiting Educational Foundation ( and oversee the ACEF’s Anti-Counterfeiting Task Force. The volunteer task force works with local, state and federal law enforcement agencies to combat counterfeit coins, banknotes and precious metals products.

“We need to find permanent funding for ACEF and ACTF. The anti-counterfeiting work and PNG’s Code of Ethics binding arbitration to mediate any disputes involving our dealer-members are the two most important activities for PNG. ACEF’s partnership with law enforcement across the country has helped remove millions of dollars in counterfeits from the marketplace and resulted in shutting down dozens of fraudulent websites selling fakes,” explained Milas.

“The Anti-Counterfeiting Educational Foundation is a 501(c)(3) corporation and separate from PNG. All donations to ACEF are tax deductible.

Also selected as PNG officers for the 2022-2024 term are Vice President Don Rinkor of Rinkor Rare Coins in Santa Rosa, California; Secretary Dustin Johnston of Heritage Auctions in Dallas, Texas; and Treasurer John Brush of David Lawrence Rare Coins in Virginia Beach, Virginia.

Other members of the PNG Board are William Gale of Asset Marketing Service in Eagan, Minnesota; Jeff Garrett of Mid-American Rare Coin Galleries in Lexington, Kentucky; James Sego of JMS Coins in Coeur d’Alene, Idaho; Vincent Wade of Pinehurst Coins in Pinehurst, North Carolina; and Immediate Past President Richard Weaver of Delaware Valley Rare Coin in Broomall, Pennsylvania.

“Under PNG Bylaws, member-dealers of the organization elect the board members at large, and then the elected board members select the officers from within their group. During their April 26, 2022 meeting, the nine-member board chose the President, Vice President, Treasurer and Secretary,” explained PNG Executive Director Brueggeman.

Founded in 1955, the Professional Numismatists Guild is a nonprofit organization composed of many of the country’s top rare coin and paper money experts who undergo a background check, must adhere to a strict code of ethics in the buying and selling of numismatic items and who guarantee the authenticity of the numismatic merchandise they sell. The PNG mission statement is: Ensuring integrity, instilling confidence, and promoting professionalism for the benefit of all numismatic collectors and professionals.

A directory of PNG member-dealers is online at and a directory of PNG-Accredited Precious Metals Dealers can be found at

For additional information, visit online at or call the PNG headquarters in Temecula, California at 951-587-8300.

Largest coin in The Royal Mint’s history passes Trial of the Pyx

May 6, Goldsmiths’ Hall, City of London: Today at Goldsmiths’ Hall in London, the Queen’s Remembrancer, Senior Master Barbara Fontaine, pronounced the verdict on the 7,968 coins submitted at the Trial of the Pyx in January, including the 10Kg “Queens’ Beasts” gold proof – the largest coin ever created by the Royal Mint.

Along with this one-of-a-kind masterwork, created using a combination of traditional skills and innovative technology, 2,700 pieces of the nation’s currency and a further 5,267 commemorative coins were submitted, tested and passed for quality and accuracy in one of the nation’s longest-established judicial ceremonies, dating back to the 12th Century.

Today’s verdict marks the end of a three-stage process, which started in January, when a jury of goldsmiths carefully counted and weighed a selection of new coins (legal tender and commemorative coins) taken at random from the Royal Mint’s 2021 production line. After adjourning for three months to allow the Goldsmiths’ Company Assay Office time to thoroughly test the coins, the Queen’s Remembrancer then delivers the verdict at Goldsmiths’ Hall, where both the Trial and the Verdict have taken place annually since 1871.

The Trial fulfils a legal requirement imposed by an Act of Parliament (Coinage Act 1971) to conduct an examination by jury to ascertain that the coins of the realm, produced by the Royal Mint, are of the correct weight, size, and composition.

Prime Warden of the Goldsmiths’ Company, Dame Lynne Brindley, commenting on the verdict today said: “Today’s verdict is important for the future of coins: both the everyday pieces found in the nation’s pockets and purses, and the beautiful commemorative pieces that have found renewed popularity with both collectors and investors. It shows an enduring commitment from the Royal Mint to uphold the highest standards of quality and provides an assurance that the Goldsmiths’ Company continues to protect consumers by assessing and testing the nation’s coinage with the same vigour today as it has done for almost 700 years.”

Anne Jessopp, Chief Executive of The Royal Mint said: “As Britain’s oldest company, we have an incredible 1,100-year heritage which includes the ancient Trial of the Pyx ceremony. As our business continues to evolve, the coins we submit vary in size, metal, and design but they all remain of the highest standard of British craftsmanship. We are delighted to have that standard affirmed through today’s verdict.”

The Trial of the Pyx today

  • The purpose of the annual Trial is to check that UK coins produced at The Royal Mint are within the statutory limits for metallic composition, weight, and size.
  • Officials from The Royal Mint bring chests (Pyx) to Goldsmiths’ Hall, hence the name ‘Trial of the Pyx’
  • These coins represent one coin from every batch of each denomination minted.
  • During the opening proceedings, the coins are counted and weighed, and a selection are put aside for testing by the Goldsmiths’ Company Assay Office.
  • The Goldsmiths’ Company Assay Office has three months to test the coins.
  • The benchmark against which the coins are tested is called a Trial Plate.
  • The trial jury, which must consist of at least six members of the Goldsmiths’ Company, is a formal court of law, summoned to Goldsmiths’ Hall by the Queen’s Remembrancer, the oldest judicial post in England and Wales.

History of the Trial of the Pyx

  • Origins of the Trial of the Pyx go back as far as circa 1180, when some form of trial may have been ordered by Henry II who instigated various control initiatives.
  • The first record of a public trial dates from 1248. Twelve citizens of London and twelve goldsmiths of the City were selected to examine the money.
  • In 1279, Edward I published an ordinance called ‘The Form of the New Money’ which described how a sample of the work produced each day at the mint in the Tower of London should be placed in a box, or ‘Pyx’.
  • Up until the reign of Elizabeth I the juries of the Trial of the Pyx were composed of a mixture of goldsmiths and other citizens of the City of London. Elizabeth I gave the Goldsmiths’ Company full responsibility for the Trial in 1580, and all jurors were nominated from its members from then on.
  • 1707 also saw the production of new trial plates following the Act of Union between England and Scotland, to bring the Edinburgh Mint into line with the Tower of London
  • Although previous Trials had occasionally been held at Goldsmiths’ Hall, it became the permanent venue by law after the Coinage Act of 1870.
  • The first Trial in Goldsmiths’ Hall, as the permanent venue, was held in 1871 and it has been held there every year since.
  • The Master of the Mint – a role held by the Chancellor today – went to prison for six weeks in 1318 after poor tests.

More information on the Trial can be found here.

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